article comment count is: 0

Dambudzo Marechera Ari pakati peN’angawo Here? – Chikamu 2: “Shona rimwe remadhimoni emughetto andaiedza kutiza”

Long Read | In this second essay of a seven-part Shona series, “Is Dambudzo Marechera also among Medicinemen?” Onai Mushava revisits Marechera’s famous statement, “Shona was part of the ghetto daemon I was trying to escape.”

This Is Africa continues its Return to Marechera to mark the great Zimbabwean writer’s 70th anniversary. In this second essay of a seven-part Shona series, “Is Dambudzo Marechera also among Medicinemen?” Onai Mushava revisits Marechera’s famous statement, “Shona was part of the ghetto daemon I was trying to escape.” Mushava argues that the African, displaced internally and defined externally by language and locality, achieves freedom by undermining rather than embracing labels of origin. 

 Ndinomhanyamhanya kuti ndisafunga pamusoro pekufunga. Runyararo nekugutsikana zvinonzwikwa nemunhu wese zvinonyangarika zuva richingovira (“Wake Up Alone”,  Amy Winehouse)

Run around just so I don’t have to think about thinking. That silent sense of content that everyone gets. Just disappears soon as the sun sets.

(“Wake Up Alone”,  Amy Winehouse)

Ignatius Mabasa anopenga neshavi raDambudzo Marechera. Chinamato hachipatsanuri Mabasa naMarechera nekuti chinamato inzira mapira mashavi yakacheneswa (“Kumhanya Kuripo”, Alick Macheso). Ngatitange nekurangarira kuti The House of Hunger haisi nzara yemumusha wekwaMarechera asi nzara yemunhu akabviswa kubva maari, asingakwanisi “kupomera mumwe munhu nzara yemweya wake.” Munyika yaMarechera naJean-Paul Sartre, munhu haagoni kutsvaka zvinoreva upenyu hwake kubva kune mumwe munhu; haakwanisi kupomera chimwe chinhu mhosva yekusakwana kwake. Hapana hata inopatsanura mweya waMarechera nekuoma kweupenyu muRhodesia nekuti akagadzirira kuzvipindurira ega nhamo dzeupenyu hwake. Chikafu chinobvutirwa manyana emba yenzara mumuromo, chikafu chemweya inodzungaira mumapani asina mvura, inoparadzaniswa pachinzvimbo chekubatanidzwa nekuwanda kwayo. Mabasa anotevera Marechera kumucheto kwemweya. Vadzungairi vemunaMapenzi havana kwekudzokera nekuti, “Mvura yatinogezera miviri nemweya yehupenyu yabvondoka.” Vatambi venyaya refu dzaMabasa, Hamundigone munaMapenzi naMusavhaya muna Imbwa yeMunhu  ihama dzaMarechera. Mu Brittle Paper, Mabasa anovimbisa kudzosa Marechera mumusha. Chiripo ndechekuti akanguri amudzosa kare, muna1999, paakatanga kuzikanwa nezita rekuti “Marechera wechiShona.” 

Simukai paMhararano 

Simukai, mukomana, takasangana pamhararano, wakabata pfumo negano, uchituruka nenyika, uchitsvaka pekugara, uchitsvaka pekumhara (“Simukai”, Pied Pipers)

Kupesana kwaMukanya naHumba kupesana kwehombarume dzafambidzana kusvika kumucheto, dzisingachabvumirani nzira yekudzoka kumba. Mukupikisa munyori anozvipikisa nechekare, Mabasa achabvumirana naMarechera mune zvakawanda. Asi anofanira kutongomupikisa kuti pawanikwe nzira yekumba nekuti mumwe wake ihora inodhuuka zimudhuukire risina pekumhara. Vaverengi VaMarechera vanobvunza kuti sei achivaka zvaasingapfuriri, kukoka dzaasingapfuri, nekubvunza asingamiriri mhinduro. Kubvondoka kwaMarechera kunogarana muna Mabasa asingagumiri kuputira vaverengi vake nechadzimira; anovaperekedza kubvute remutauro, chitendero netsika.

Kupesana kwaMukanya naHumba kupesana kwehombarume dzafambidzana kusvika kumucheto, dzisingachabvumirani nzira yekudzoka kumba

“Ndava kuzvitarisa zera rangu nekuti vana vanosheedzera kuti, ‘Mama, Mama, murume uyo ndiani?’ kana vandiona, pandinocheuka kuti ndione kuti vari kureva ani, ndoona vachibvira ini. Jesu wangu!” Marechera anodemba kumutapi wenhau, Alle Lansu (Literary Shock Treatment). Hakuna tsvimborume isingazivi nhamo yekunzi, “Pamusoroi, baba,” pacho payinotiwo yakateya rudo, ichizvinzwa ujaya. Haisiyo chete nhamo inowanikwa pazera iri. Makore ari pakati pehudiki nekukura inyika isina muridzi. Munhu anodzivairamo haagoni kuziva kuti hupenyu hwake ndehwe chokwadi here. Marechera akafa nguva yaaizvidya pfungwa pamusoro pesarudzo dzaanga aita semunyori. Anga aneta nekukomba churu ega. Zvichida, kuvaka musha, kumukira kubasa, kutengesera mweya wake kuZimbabwe, kuzvipa kuzviga zvaanga akura achipikisana nazvo, kwaizomupa zororo.

Zimbabwe, Harare. Rhodes Avenue, May 1987.
Zimbabwean writers Dambudzo Marechera and Charles Mungoshi meet for the first time after years of rivalry. Photography by Ernst Schade

Mubvunzo wekuti dai Marechera achiri mupenyu angadai ari ani unonakidza vanyori. “Dambudzo akafa aine makore 35 chete, masimba ake aive pachena asati azadziswa. Nzira yake yekuzviparadza yakanga yakanyanyotarwa nekuzvitsvaka kwake pamweya. Mhere yaSilvia Plath – ‘Nhai Mwari wangu, ndiri chiiko?’ – inoratidza kuva yanga yamaranzura umhizha hwake” Wole Soyinka anotarisa nyaya iyi mumbongororo yake, “Scrapiron Blues – My Book of the Year.” Mhere yaMarechera haisi yekubvunza kuti ndini ani chete; ndeyekurambazve zvose zvaari, kana kuri kuti ane zvimwe zvaari kunze kwokuva munyori. Zvivakwa zvake zvose zvinofanira kuputswa zvisati zvapfurirwa. Panonzi nevadzidzi vaSatre, “Tinoda zvese uye hapana chatinoda,” Marechera anoti, “Ndinopikisa hondo, nekupikisa vanopikisa hondo.” 

Munyika yaMarechera, mugarandega ndiye chete mupenyu. Sekutaura kwaFlora Veit-Wild, mutambi mukuru munaBlack Sunlight, anokwanisa kunyatsoona nyika zvakanaka akasungirwa makumbo mudenga (“Grotesque Black Bodies”, Veit-Wild. Kureva kuti nyika pachayo ndiyo yakapidiguka saka haukwanisi kuiona zvomene usina kuipidigura. Marechera haana kumbobvira abvumirana nevanhu kuti anopenga. Chaanonyatsoziva chete imhere yaSoul Jah Love, “Vanhu vese vari kupenga ava,” muna “Mbiya.” Panguva inozvitsvaka vanhu vatema nevanyori vavo munhoroondo, mavambo nemitauro yavo, Marechera anofamba akashama achin’ara kuti hembe dzekusiirwa dzine chipembwe. 

Soul Musaka, known professionally as Soul Jah Love, an award-winning Zimbabwean musician.

Vanhu vatema vakabviswa munezvenyika vanotsvaka zvinoreva upenyu hwavo munezvazuro, sekutsvaka kunoita vatendi kunyaradwa kwavo mune zvamangwana. Mutauro wedecoloniality, sekudzidziswa kwawo naWalter Mignolo, mutauro wechitendero, unotsvaka mavambo, kuchena kwemweya usina chikwereti, nekusabata zvakararirwa nevauyi. Rusununguko rwaMarechera rwuri mukuzvisika pachake munguva yake, saka asingatani kumutsana naani naani anomuti, “Nzvimbo yako iyi, munhu mutema.” Kuiswa panzvimbo semunhu mutema, ingava nzvimbo yeumambo chaiyo, hakugashiriki kana uchipiwa nzvimbo yacho nemutorwa; kunotambirika chete parangano yehama. Marechera anoona kuti munhu mutema haasi mutorwa chete mune zvichirungu nekuti hutema hwake pachahwo hwakagadzirwa nevamwe. Rurimi rwaamai pachahwo rurimi rwemutorwa. Mai mutorwa akatorwa kumadzisekuru kwandisina mutupo, mudzimu, inzwi nenhaka. Kuva mutauri kuva mutorwa nemudzungairi. 

Rurimi rwaamai pachahwo rurimi rwemutorwa

Nhamo Mhiripiri anofunga kuti dai Marechera akararama, hasha dzake dzaigona kuzoserera nekukura. Mugore rake rechi33, Marechera anga aneta nekukava madziro emadzimbahwe. Anga apedzwa mweya neurwere nekushaya rutsigiro. Zuva raanotanga kumuka ari muZimbabwe, Marechera anobvunza kuti, “Chiri chiri kumboitika kwatiri,” achishoropodzera Wilson Katiyo kushandira Bazi reKufambiswa kweMashoko, naMusaemura Zimunya aidzidzisa kuUniversity of Zimbabwe. Asi hurumende inomusheedza Marechera kuti ashandisire njere dzake mubazi rakare reKufambiswa kweMashoko. Mumazuva ake ekupedzisira, Marechera anoudza Lansu kuti anga amboramba basa iri kwemakore asi zvino anga agadzirira kuti vakamudana adaire. Chero anga amborambisisa kupiwa basa mumatongerwo enyika semunyori, rimwe zuva anosimuka, anogadzirisa mabhingo ake, nekusundira mukwende wake kumasure, obvumirana naEmmanuel Ngara zvinyoronyoro pagungano raiparidza VaNgara jana remunyori mugutsaruzhinji, “Ko tisu tadii tingarambidzwa kupemberera kushaya zvekuita kwedu” (“Interview with Greenwell Matsika”, Veit-Wild).

Ignatius Tirivangani Mabasa. Photo credit: https://www.youtube.com/c/ignatiusmabasa/Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License.

Hatizivi kuti dai akararama, Marechera aizovei, asi tinoziva kuti akadzoka kuZimbabwe achimhorosa vamwe vanyori nepenzera. Mabasa anotanga nekuti mukwasha imhute, panodaidzira Marechera kuti, “Take him out! Munyori, not a writer,” achidzinga Aaron Chiundura Moyo pamusangano wemawriters. Panozonzizve naMarechera, “Uyu Aaron munyori, not a writer,” mberi kwevana vechikoro kuHighfield, Mabasa anowonesa dare kuti mukwasha imboko. Ndaswededzwa mberi kwechigaravakwati nekupinda kwaMabasa mudariro nekuti Mabasa haangosiri bhururu waMoyo chete; ihama yaMarechera! Ndiani anoziva Mabasa zvakanaka, Munhumumwe anoti ukama haugezwe nesipo setsvina, kana Mtukudzi akati usahwira hunokunda ukama?  

Kufumurwa Rutatu kweMunhu 

Mari unoidii, zvako zvemadrugs, mukadzi unomudii? Ndakambopauser, bvandadzokera muBhaibheri, bvandanzwa richiti: Hama yangu, pakutanga Mwari paakasika vanhu, waisarwara hama yangu.  Adam anga ari one. Ndobva apihwa mukadzi achinzi muvaraidzi; hazvina kunzi muzvarisi. Pavakangodya muchero, ndopakatanga kuzvarwa vanhu. Asi zviri kunzi kudya muchero icurse. Uchanzwa mumwe, anoda kuzvisimbisa (“Mbiya”, Soul Jah Love)

Nyaya yedu inotangira kumavambo. “Munhu akatumidza mhuka dzose mazita” (Mavambo 2: 20). Mashoko ekutangatanga mumutauro wemunhu mazita emhuka. Dai Mwari vasina kusika mhuka, munhu angadai akaumba dzake dzedhaka nekuti, “Munhu akazvisika paakazviudza kuti akasiyana nedzinza rake remhuka” (The Black Insider, Dambudzo Marechera). Chinoisa munhu pakati zvisikwa zvose kushandisa mutauro achipa zvinhu mazita. Asizve, mutauro pachawo unogona kudzikisira munhu, nekuti zvaanopepeta mauri zvinoramba zvichidzoka kuzomuita mhuka inomhemhaira pakati pedzimwe mhuka. Ngatipfuurire kubva patakasiira rwendo rwapera. 

Kune mhando mbiri dzemutauro dzinofumura munhu kuita mhuka inoshamba yakashama. Mhando yekutanga inonzi ruzivo. “‘Ndiani akuudza kuti wakashama?’ Jehovha Mwari vakavhunza. ‘Asi wadya muchero wemuti wandakakuraira kuti usadya?’” Hama dzinomhanyisa pfungwa dzinowanzobata kumeso dzichifunga zvadzinofunga panonzi muchero wepakati. Muchero uyu unongoreva chete “ruzivo rwezvakanaka nezvakaipa” sekunyora kwemunhu waMwari munaMavambo. Muchero weruzivo unoonesa munhu kuti angasikwa zvake nemufananidzo waMwari asi maari munopfekana umhuka hwune mukundo. Buka radya mafondokoto rava nzuma inomuka yakarara ichifunga chakadya nyanga dzayo. 

Kubva zvaravira munhu muchero weruzivo, haana kuzogona kumurega. Nhamo yake ndeyekuti haagoni kumudzokera ukasafumura kushama kwake. Sigmund Freud anorondedzera nhoroondo yekufumuka rutatu kwemunhu, kwaanoti kuninipiswa neruzivo.  Munhu anosara akashama panoratidza Corpenicus kuti nyika ndiyo inotenderera, kwete zuva, kureva kuti nyika yemunhu haisiyo iripakati pezvikiswa zvose. Charles Darwin anotevera nekuudza munhu kuti haatosiri chisikwa sezvaanofunga, angoriwo bukirwa remhuka rakangobukirawo nemasanga panyika isina chinangwa. Kuninipiswa kwetatu kunobva mudzidziso yaFreud pachake. Zvinonzi nemuzvarwa uyu, munhu haasi samusha weuzima hwake; munhu pauzima mutorwa mugwindingwi repfungwa dzaanofunga asi asingadzizivi (Introduction to Psychoanalysis, Freud).

Kusvuurwa Rutatu kweMunhu Mutema 

Freud haarondedzeri nhoroondo iyi zvakakwana nekuti ane katurikwa mairi. Ruzivo rwese rwunogadzirwa nekuturikirwa nemunhu anowaniswa simba narwo (Archeologies of Knowledge, Michel Foucault). Panosiiwa munhu rudzi rwemunhu rwakashama neruzivo rutsva, pane kupatsanuka kunoitika. MuBhaibheri, panofumurwa mhuka yatinoziva nemuchero weruzivo, panosvuurwa imwe mhuka kuwanisa munhu nhembe inomutendera kuramba ari munhu (Mavambo 3: 21). Ruzivo nemutauro warwo inhembe inopfekedza imwe mhuka kubva mukusvuurwa kweimwe mhuka. MuZimbabwe, chiitiko ichi chinonzi Rhodesian epistemicide (African Music, Power and Being in Colonial Zimbabwe, Mhoze Chikowero). Ndiro garudzo raMabasa pahama yake Marechera.

Aaron Chiundura Moyo presenting the Radio 2 (now Radio Zimbabwe) novel-reading show “Kuverengwa Kwemabhuku” in the 1990s (Courtesy: A.C Moyo).

 Marechera semunhu akachenjera anoziva kuti isu sevanhu vatema takanga tisingazive kunyora. Zita rekuti kunyora rakabva patsika yedu yekutemera nyora kwaiitwa nen’anga. Saka nemamwe matauriro, Marechera ari kuti Chiunduramoyo nevanyori veChiShona in’anga, musavaone sesu English writers. (Kudya zveVapfupi neKureba: Musatsamwe, Marechera Munhu weJee, Musara, neKurasa Hunhu”, Ignatius Mabasa)

Tichawedzera kuona chokwadi chenhoroondo yaMabasa muzvikamu zvinotevera; zvaizvezvi ngatimbotsvaka katurikwa kaFreud. Panofumurwa munhu naCorpenicus, vanhu vemavirira, Occident, vanosvuura ganda revekumabvazuva, Orient, kuti vachiva ivo vanofamba nemhapa. Zuva risingachagoni kutenderera muchadenga rinoramba richitenderera mumutauro unopatsanura mavirira nemabvazuva. Chiga chiri pamazita aya ndechekuti pese patinonzwa kukudzwa kwemutema, paanorumbidzwa sababa vemarudzi ose, semuchenjeri wechinyakare, panotaurwa nezveauthenticity yake mubindu remavambo, kutenderera kwenguva yake mudenderedzwa, yemurungu ichienda ziendanakuenda, tinofanira kuziva chinangwa chetsvimborume inopisika mwana wemvana madzihwa. Kudzingwa kwemunhu mubindu naCorpenicus, kunomutuma kugadzira nyika yake oga, kufamba rwendo rwemweya rwunorondedzerwa naHegel, mubindu muchisara buka riri pakati nemunhu nechikara.

Tikakanganwa kuti Jacques Derrida muAfrican tinonzvengwa nemhodzi yezano rake. Horomori iyi inoti vavhunzurudzi vekumavirira, maWestern philosophers, vanokoshesa kutaura kupfuura kunyora (Of Grammatology, Jacques Derrida). Hanzi chokwadi chiri mukutaura; kunyora igudziramukanwa chete; kunotsiva kutaura  asi kwakakamuka kare. Munhoroondo yaDerrida, maphilosopher aya anoti ndudzi dzisati dzapunduka dzinoshandisa mifananidzo pachinzvimbo chemavara. Mahieroglyphics ekuEgypt ari pedo nemifananidzo yemumapako. Mushure mekufananidza mutauro nemvura, Marechera anodudzira zvinoreva nhoroondo yaDerrida:

Vamwe vanochera yakadaro munzizi nematsime. Vamwe vanoichenesa nemishonga voichengetera pakanaka. Vamwe havana chimwe chavanomwa kunze kwedoro nemaBlood Marys newaini asi iyi ingoriwo nzira yekumwa mvura yako. Nzira yaunomwa nayo mvura inofanira kutaridza zvizhinji pamusoro pako. Inofanira kuratidza nhoroondo yako, tsika dzako, kudzidziswa kwako nezvimwe. Inofanira kuratidza kuti nyika yako yakabudirira kana kudzokera kumashure kusvika papi. Inzwi rekuti “gandanzara” rinopiwa vose vachiri kuchera mavara avo akadaro kubva munzizi, matope, nedondo – dzimwe nguva kuita uku kunotsanangurwa sekudzokera kuchinyakare. 

Kumabvazuva kunotemwa nyora; kumavirira kune writing. Kumabvazuva kune vanhu vanotambira mumwenje wezuva nemwedzi semabhururungwa, kumavirira kunogarwa mumagetsi, mvura yakavhenekwa, nemapiritsi emulab. Kuna Hegel, mabvazuva, panotangira nhoroondo ichienda kumavirira, kana kuti Europe, anowanikwa kuChina. Vanhu vatema havawanikwi munhoroondo yaHegel nekuti havana kumbobvira vasiya mavambo. Manegro anowanikwa kunze kwenhoroondo achimirira munhu achiri muumhuka hwake, ane unhu hwakaora, mwana wechikara, akapwereka nekusindimara panguva imwe, anogara muuroyi nekutyiswa nezvisikwa nemweya yevafi (“The Natural Context or the Geographical Basis of World History”, G.W.F Hegel). 

Vakati vava munzira zvikanzi, “Sabhuku, mune muswe here kumba?” Zvikanzi naSabhuku, “Hongu ndinawo, muswe wemvumba.” Zvikanzi, “Motora muswe iwoyo, moinda kuraini kwenyu. Munoona nzira iri seri kweraini. Mukaona anopfuura, kana mukomana, kana munhu mukuru, momupa manho eraini renyu, ndowamune maakupa un’anga.” Ndobva vasimuka, ndobva vasvika. Ndopavakatora muswe uya uyu, ndobva vainda kuseri kweraini. Sezvineyi vakabva vangoona mumwe mukomana achipfuurawo zvake. Zvikanzi, “Nhai mwanangu!” Mwana uya akabva angomira haana kuramba. Ndobva apihwa manho ose, ndobva awuiwa naye, ndokupinda mumba. Yaakuitwe n’anga! (“Mbavha neMuroyi”, DzeMagitare Volume 1)

Panonzi naMarechera, Chiundura Moyo in’anga, tichitevera nhoroondo inopiwa naMabasa, ari kumutsvinyira here kana kumurumbidza? N’anga inodzura makona akadaro musango nekutaura nemweya yevafi pagata iri kumavambo; yakasiyana nadhokotera anorapa nemapiritsi akatswiwa nekusanganiswa mulab.  Kune varapwi vanoda kudzokera kugona sezvariri, nevarapwi vanoda zvakavhenekwa; Leonard Dembo anoti wadane n’anga adana chiremba. “Kudya zveVapfupi neKureba” inyaya iri pedo naWalter Mignolo kupfuura Jacques Derrida, asi nemufananidzo wenyora chete, Mabasa anoratidza kuti Derrida muAfrican kupfuura Mignolo. Un’anga hwatinopiwa nevanotirumbidza un’anga hwunobata mai. Vavhunzurudzi vaDerrida vanokoshesa mutauro kupfuura kunyora, nekuti kubudirira kwemunyori kunoonekwa kana kuchisiyaniswa nekusara kwemutauri. 

Mhindigari dzaHegel, kana kuti Hegelian dialectics, dzinoonekwa muQuiet Earth, firimu raGeoff Murphy. Tinotanga nekusangana naZac, mhizha yemagetsi, achimuka munyika isina vanhu. Zac anomirira munhu, kureva kuti murume wechichena, atetereka kwazvo kubva kumavambo akasvika pakuparadza rudzi rwemunhu netsaona. Tinoziva kuti munhu anogona kuva mugarandega chete kana ari mukati mevamwe. Haana zvake basa navo sevanhu asi ane basa navo nekuti kuvapo kwake kunotsigisa maonero waanozviita pachake. 

Vanhu vanonzi naChristian, “Ava ndivo vanhu vangu; neniwo ndiri vanhu vavo” (Black Sunlight, Dambudzo Marechera) havasi vanhu vaane chekuita navo, asi kusiyana kwake navo ndiko kunomupa zvaari; kutadza kukwana kwake kuchivapawo zvavari. Hazvishamisi kuti anoenderera mberi achiti akafamba pasi rese achitsvaka vanhu vake chaivo asi haana kuona vanhu, asi madzukununu vanhu. Madzukununu asiri vanhu aya ndiwo vanhu vake nekuti umunhu hwake hwuri mukusava dzukununu saye. 

Munhu akasara oga panyika haasisiri munhu nekuti umunhu hunobva pakusiyana kwake neumhuka, sekubva kunoita uchena mukusiyana kwahwo neutema. Quiet Earth rati fambe zvishoma, tinoona mhizha yedu iya, Zac, ichipenga nebuka nekushaya munhu naMwari panyika. Firimu rinochinja panopinda Joanne, mukadzi wechichena. Joanne ane chipo chemuviri nechiso, asi kwete chenjere. Neimwe nzira, anomiririra kureruka kwemapop stars ane mbiri yekuti ane mbiri. Tadzokera muEden yaZac naJoanne, mubindu munopinda nyoka, kureva murume wechitema, Appi. 

Muchinda wechiMaori uyu anomuka achipira vadzimu, ropa rake rakawandira zasi kupfuura mumusoro. Semhuka, inyoka huru inotyiwa nevarungu muBlack Skin, White Masks, Full Metal Jacket na “The Black the Berry.” Zac ari mushishi kugadzirisa Eden, Appi ari kusveverera nebindu achidyisa Joanne muchero. Handina kudzokera kuhama dzandambotaura dzisingadudziri shoko reMavambo nemazvo. Neimwe nzira, muchero wemunaQuiet Earth, mufananidzo weruzivo hwemacultural Marxist, critical race theory nemaimmigrants, rwuri kutyiwa nevaridzi veAmerica mazuvano, kureva varume vechichena nechiKristu. Tichidzoka panyaya yedu, garudzo riripo nderekuti Joanne naAppi havamo mufirimu iri; varimo chete kutsigira  huveini hwaZac nematyira ake. Zac anoreva chokwadi asingazivi paanoti vaviri ava vanogona vasiri vanhu chaizvo asi mifananidzo iri mumusoro make. Kuti atendeseke kuti ndiye iye, anoda mifananidzo yavo, sekudiwa nesociology kunoitwa anthropology, nekudiwa nemusicology kunoitwa ethnomusicology. Kuona kwatinoita firimu iri nemaziso aZac kunotsigira chirevo chaLacan chekuti, “Mukadzi haako. Mukadzi chirwere chemurume.”

Achibva kuninipisa munhu, Darwin anonyaradza murungu nekumuyeuchidza kuti marudzi akabudirira achaparadza marudzi emagandanzara, uye rudzi rwamangwana, rwunenge rwati darikei rwemurungu, tisingatauri zvemanegro nemaAborigine, rwuchatsiva mhuka dzinenge makudo (The Descent of Man, Charles Darwin). James Watson, akapiwa mubairo weNobel muna1962 anodzokorora adzokororazve kuti vanhu vatema havana njere sevachena, achishandisa sainzi dzake dzeDNA (“Uninhabitable Earth”, David Wallace Wells). Vanhu vanotaura muzita resainzi dzaDarwin saThomas Huxley vanoparidza kusainzana kwemunegro nemurungu (One Human Family, Carl Wieland). Kuparidza muzita resainzi, kuparidza pasina anogona kukupindura. 

Dambudzo Marechera with writer Charles Mungoshi in the Msasa Bar of Hotel Norfolk, Fourth Street (now: Simon Muzenda Street), Central Harare, 29 May 1987. Credit: Ernst Schade

Freud pachake anotsanangura psychoanalysis achishandisa magandanzara achiri kumitupo nezvieraera semufananidzo wemunhu muudiki hwake. Mufanandizo uyu unogona kushandiswa nemarudzi akabudirira kuona zvaaimbova. Nenzira iyi, vanhu vatema mifananidzo yezvirwere zvevarungu, sezvo gwindingwi, kana kuti the unconcious, richiumbwa nezviitiko zvoudiki. Musoro wakazara webhuku raFreud unoti, Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, kana kuti, Totem and Taboo: Some Points of Agreement between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics. Kuninipiswa rutatu kwemunhu kusvuurwa rutatu kwemunhu mutema anopiwa mazita emhuka kuti murungu arambe ari munhu.

Adam named his wife Eve, because she was the mother of all life. Eve kissed Adam with the mother tongue and said: We will built our hut in the big remote, away from animals who selfie-bomb themselves into our time like flies deep-diving into the Son of Man’s wound to come out as bees on the black-and-yellow runway of paradise. They were lucid dreamers, responding to hunger’s romantic twists. In the garden, forbidden the one fruit they would die for. Their lives passed before them as they paced themselves to the weight of their dreams. But they were naked in God’s dream. Alone among animals, to be human is to skin animal-skins to hide your nakedness from God. Language is the genesis of man. In the cool of day, when the wind is singing its raspy yodel for animals, humans scatter it into channels of noise and signal. 

Adam and Eve were primitive cave painters without belly buttons. They left their snob heaven species care and control, the hand-me-down speeches known to all subtil cattle. Bubbles out of the mouths of babes crystallize into language, religion and science. Lucy in la la land with la langue. Lost in the forest, alone with animals, the lumberjack knows the grey tropic that is unfamiliar emptiness. Have you ever been taken away from yourself with no stars to shoot for and no ground to fold back to? “I didn’t wanna self-destruct. The evils of Lucy was all around me.” But Eve adjusted her lingerie of yellow leaves and kissed him to death with our mother tongue  (“Lacan in the Sky with Diamonds”, Onai Mushava)

Marechera muChemutengure 

Ndaida kuti mukadzi wemutyairi haashaye dovi, ndikaona kuti uri mukadzi wamatanyera (Bhuku Risina Basa, Memory Chirere)

Mabasa anovhiya zvisina chaibvamumba. Muna “Kudya zveVapfupi neKureba”, anomira nasahwira wake, Moyo, panzvimbo yehama yake, Marechera. Ndiyeka Marechera wekumboti, “Shona yaiva pakati pemadhimoni emughetto andaiedza kutiza” (“Dambudzo Marechera Interviews Himself”)? “Shona yanga yadzikwa mumararamiro akazvidzika, anomonyorora pfungwa, mairatidza kuti maibudika chete nekutizira mururimi nedzidzo zvechiRungu.” Kunanga Shona hudhimoni muna1983, kunosiya Marechera nenhanho imwe kuti achizodzinga Chiundura sedhimoni muna1984, “Take him out! Munyori not a writer” (“Kudya zveVapfupi neKureba”, Mabasa). Marechera haasi kungodzinga Chiundura chete; ari kudzingawo Mabasa, munyori weShona, iye pachake semuShona achitozvidzingawo. Sezvo Marechera achishandisa mutauro wakasimba, mapumhangozi yaMabasa inodederawo negobvudete:

Kune vakambonzwa vanhu vemachechi ezvemweya vachidzinga madhimoni vanoziva kuti ikoko madhimoni anorairwa nechirungu achinzi “come out.” Kana rurimi rweChiShona riri dhimoni, naiyewo Marechera semunhu mutema idhimoni nekuti Shona hausi mutauro chete, asi izita revanhu vatema veZimbabwe. Tinoona kuti nyaya iye yandambotaura yechibhoyi inobuda mumashoko aMarechera. Zviri pachena kuti Marechera aitiza mumvuri wake (Chave Chemutengure, Ignatius Mabasa)

Harold Bloom anoti nyanduri anotsauka kubva mumumvuri wegamba rake, achiva nenzwi rake, paanozviudza zvinhu zvakakanganiswa negamba rake (The Anxiety of Influence, Bloom). Mabasa haanetseki kutsauka kubva muna Marechera nekuti anowadzanisa zvinobvondorwa naMarechera, nekupa mhinduro kumibvunzo isingai kupindurwa naMarechera, pamwe nekupa mibvunzo kumhinduro dzaMarechera. Nyaya yechibhoyi inobatwa naMabasa muPhD rekutanga kunyorwa neShona, Chave Chemutengure: Husarungano neRwendo rweNgano dzevaShona, ndiyo yavakuchitomera serurimi pakati pehwasha dzemuShona. Dhimoni chinhu chinodavira zita rako, chichinzwa nenzere dzako, nekutaura nerurimi rwako. Shona yakarera Marechera nechiraparapa chayo iShona inomonyorora pfungwa nekubvisa munhu maari. Achitaura naMaiguru Flora, anoti Shona iyi yakazara mhirizhonga. MaRhodesian angava zvawo nemakore 42 akatanura tende dzawo; chaasina kukatanura uroyi hwuchiri kumera serurimi pakati pehwasha dzangu. Nazvino madimikira evaShona anobomha chibhoyi. Mabasa anopa semuenzaniso, mushonga wechibhoyi, vhudzi rechibhoyi, love yechibhoyi, time yechibhoyi, kuita zvinhu pachibhoyi. Kana munhu achida kuzvisiyanisa nemagandanzara emuZimbabwe anomatuka achiti masadza-eaters kunge asina kumbonzwa Mabasa achiti: “Imbwa haihukuri sadza!”

Rurimi rwemutema ishongwe yekupedzisira yemunhu akanyimwa nzvimbo munhoroondo yeruzivo. Neimwe nzira, rurimi rwakakoshera kuva rurimi. Kana rwuchiyera, rwunoyera nekuti rwukasvibiswa hapana chimwe chichasara. Hatingabati tikapedza nhasi nyaya yekubviswa kuri kuitwa Shona muZimbabwe iwo mukore uno. Ngatirambe tinaMukanya naHumba. Mabasa anopesana zvakanyanya naMarechera nekuti Makombe vari kutendekera mutsime rekupedzisira muzita remuchohwe. Zvichida, Marechera haaremekedzi Shona nekuti Shona yega yaanoziva isymptom yeRhodesia. Patinonyora nhuramanzwi, tisakanganwa masapurazi, maforomani, nemafata vakatiudza zvavanofunga pamusoro pedu vachishandisa mutauro wedu nekumugadzira chinhambochimwecho. Manzwi andinorangarira achidzurwa neShona yawo munaHouse of Hunger anoti:

Shure kwehure kunotambatamba haaa!

Shure kwehure kunotambatamba haaa!

Kana ndazofa ndinokuchengetera nzvimbo haa!

Kana ndazofa ndinokuchengetera nzvimbo haa!

Kunyadzisira kwagara kune nzvimbo muchiShona, pamukwerere panoedzeserwa kurojana kwedenga nenyika, muzvirevereve nemadanha emugudza, nepandari panotenderwa kutema usingasiyi peukama. Asi kunyadzisira kwaHarry muHouse of Hunger, kunoshura nekuti kunobatanidza chipfambi mukumbu mumwe netsika yekupira vadzimu. Kunyadzisira kunopumura zvinoera mupfungwa dzaDambudzo, muatheist asingakwanisi kuziva kuti anorwara zvechipatara here zvechivanhu here. Masapurazi ekuAmerica aishandisa varanda vechirume semachongwe kuwedzera vashandi papurazi, votenderedza madzibaba aya mapurazi akasiyana kuti pfungwa yedzinza idzimike muvana (What’s Wrong with Being Black, Matthew Ashimolowo). Mashoko anenge bitch, motherfucker nanigger ava nhaka yemutauro watinodada nawo asi anotangira munhoroondo yekumhemhaidzwa. Ghetto raMarechera muRhodesia, rinotsvivawo mashoko ekuti Baba naMai nemashoko ekuti Bhoyi naHure.

Ndaizvinzwa pakadzika; ndaingova nemakore gumi nerimwe apo rufu nechifambi zvaisakadza pfungwa dzangu. Ndipo patakatanga kuvenga chese chine chekuita nemhuri, mhuri huru, dzinza, nyika nerudzi rwevanhu (Dambudzo Marechera: A Sourcebook on His Life and Work, Flora Veit-Wild).

Shirikadzi dzevatema, kusanganisira mai vaDambudzo, dzinodzingwa mudzimba dzekanzuru mitumbi yevarume ichiri mumba. Vanogara kuzvitangwena vachitengesa miviri kuti vaendese vana kuzvikoro zvevarungu. MaShona aya haachina chawo muShona, saka Marechera achiti, “Unogona kuremekedza mutauro chete kana wakakombwa nezvinoita kuti umuremekedze. Zvanga zvakakomberedza Shona zvakandipa kuivenga… Mai vangu vaida kudzidza kwangu vakaita zvose zvavaikwanisa kuti zvindiitire… nguva imweyo kutaurirana kwakaramba kuchioma pakati pedu. Mutauro nezvose zvawaimirira wakandiita mutorwa kwavari” (Nhaurirano yaMarechera naVeit-Wild). 

Musha wapinda mweya usingazikamwi, wapinda kuchekana ukama (“Uyez’ Umoya”, Lovemore Majaivana; “Kutambura”, Nicholas Zakaria; “Baba naMai”, Alick Macheso). Imba yenzara imba isina mutsauko pakati pemidzimu nevaroyi (“Missionary Witchcrafting of African Being”, Mhoze Chikowero). Marechera anodemba kusarutsisika kweurombwa hweRhodesia paanoti, “Panyaya yemutauro, Ngirandi yakandikunda” (The House of Hunger, firimu raChris Austin), achiti zvakare, “Ndaiva mubatsiri anobvumirana nekupambwa kwepfungwa dzangu” (“Dambudzo Marechera Interviews Himself”).

Rurimi rwaAmai Rurimi rweMutorwa

Libambe lingatshoni. Ngoba lingatshona ubusuphupha untshontsha. Yis’ isono sakho; yil’ icala lakho, mzukulu (“Isono Sami – Remix”, Lovemore Majaivana naAlbert Nyathi)

Mutauro wangu unonzi rurimi rwaamai. Zita iri rinodudza pacharo kuti handina mutauro. Zvinorevei kuti mutauro ndewe mutorwa nekuti mai mutorwa akatorwa kumadzisekuru? Kushandisa mutauro kuzvifuratira nekuti mutauro ndewa mbuya vanondinoziva nekuudzwa. Pandinodududza nematauro, ndiri kuramba ndichidzokera kumadzimbuya ane mitupo yakasiyana, kusvika mutauro wandidzima, ndisisina changu mauri. Kutaura kuva pamadzisekuru pandisina chipepa mungowani nekuti sarudzo dzese dzakaitwa kare; pandisingatambi matare nekuti hapana midzimu yemutupo wangu. Nekuda kwemhosho yagara iri mumitauro mizhinji, humai kugashira; hubaba kuita. Nyika dzinobvisa zita ramai pamutauro netsika, dzinozivikanwa semafatherland. Vatungamiri vemafatherland saHitler naPutin vane basa guru kugadzirisa mamap nekushandura nhoroondo kuti rudzi rukuru rwuve irwo nyakuita.

Kana pane dambarefu rakarongwa sedambarefu muZimbabwe, Isono Sami raLovemore Majaivana riri pamusorosoro. Dambarefu rekuoneka kwaMajaivana rinopera achidzimwa nemutauro. Mhanzi yaMajaivana hairatidzi mutsauko pakati peidentity neuniversaility. Mhizha isinganzvengi marwadzo ekurwisana kuri mukati meidentity pachayo inorumuka kubva munezvepedo kupinda munezvepasi rose. Chimbo chekupedzisira padambarefu raMajaivana, chinova version chechipiri, chinodzokorora magitare asina lead, nevabvumiri vasina muvambi sechiratidzo chekudzurwa kwaMajaivana nemutauro pachawo. Mashoko anotevera anodetembiwa nehanzvadzi yaMai Lovemore, Albert Nyathi:

Hawu, mzukulu, wakhala nje?

Kanti vele awukwazi ukuthi awusiwo walapha ekhaya?

Awusiwo muzi wakho lo

Uyela lakho wavela khona

Lapha ungumuzukulu nje kuphela 

Ungamabona bulawa

Umafavuke njenge dabane 

Umuzwangendaba

Yikho bengakufuni 

Mzwangendaba, haasi chete mambo wevaNgoni, vane ukama naMajaivana; ishoko rinobudisa ukama hwemunhu wese nerurimi rwaamai. Mzwangendaba anonzwa zvinhu nemakuhwa; haagari dare razvinotaurwa; mutauro unosvika kwaari sarudzo dzose dzaitwa kare. Nyathi anoenderera mberi nekupesanisa mutupo wemuzukuru wake nemutupo waamai. Mudetembo rekwaTshuma, mutupo wekwaMajaivana, mbudzana inotamba pamusoro pemapango edanga. Nyathi anorangaridza Majaivana kuti chero akavhuna mapango edanga semhuru yadya ikaguta, haasi nyati, anongova mutorwa. Kwete mutorwa chete asi munhu akatarirwa mhirizhonga, ungamabona bulawa.

Tisati tasvika kudetembo raNyathi, tinoona detembo rekwaTshuma, richizvidzima rega. Kune rimwe divi, imbudzana, kune rimwe divi ibere rinodya mbudzana; kune rimwe divi mwana wamambo, kune rimwe divi zunhu risina hama rinopfuura rega vamwe vachifara nevadiwa vavo. Kuzvipikisa kwezvinhu zvakasiyana kunotakurika kupfuura kuzvipikisa kwechinhu chimwe, inyoni yemuhlophe. Shiri yemheni inowanikwa mumitauro yevaNguni pamwe nemutupo wekwaTshuma, ishiri yeupenyu neshiri yerufu panguva imwe. Kureva kuti muzukuru wemutauro haana kwekumhan’ara nekuti mutauro ndiwo unozvirwisa maari. 

Pese panodetemba Nyathi mukambo aka, tinonzwa maungira ekudzurwa kwaMajaivana mumagitare anorira asina nhungamiri pasi penzwi rake. Michel Foucault anoti kutaura kunobudisa kusavapo kwemutauri, nekuzvinyungudusa kwemutauro mukuramba uchitaurwa; “panosvika mutauro kumucheto kwawo, hausvikowana chinhu chinoupikisa, unosvikowana renje raunosvipikisira mariri” (“The Thought of the Outside”, Foucault). 

Ndikataura nechiRungu kamwe, ndinozviterera kaviri. Ndinotaura semunhu ari kufamba pamusoro pemazai kuti ndisanyadzisa pahama dzechirungu. Ndinoziva kuti handisi mumba mangu. Kana ndichitaura Shona handizvitereri nekuti nekuti hapana munhu anozviterera achifema. Ndopanonzi naMabasa, “Shona hausi mutauro chete, asi izita revanhu vatema veZimbabwe.” Zvichida ndipo pane mhosho yedu. Mutauro ungava zvawo mudzimu wangu; chinhambo chimwecho idhimoni rinogara mandiri nesarudzo dzisiri dzangu. Ingwindingwi rine mhirizhonga yemadzikirira. “Bata zuva risavira nekuti rikavira ucharota uchiba. Ndiyo mhosva yako, ndicho chivi chako muzukuru” (“Isono Sami – Remix”). Kupera kwezuva, mutauro hauna nyanisi. Ungava zvako mambo pakati pevanhu vako, mutauro unokuwarura dehwe rembada, wokufambisa wakashama pakati pemhuka huhope. 

Hungwe yamhara!

Follow This Is Africa on Twitter and Facebook to join the conversation.

Tell us what you think