Many countries have joined more than one organisation, which divides loyalties and constrains capacity and cohesion.
The African Union will struggle to ensure partners stick to their promises in a tough new international environment.
Cyril Ramaphosa handled COVID-19 well, but more could have been done on governance, security and violent extremism.
COVID-19 travel restrictions are adding to the growing pressure on observer missions to prove their worth.
Why doesn’t SADC intervene in dire political situations in the same way leaders in West Africa do?